When Your Kidneys Fail

Hemodialysis (HD)


During HD, the patient’s blood flows outside the body through disposable bloodlines into a special filter, the dialyzer, also called artificial kidney. In the dialyzer, a special solution absorbs the waste products and excess water filtered out of the blood and transports them out of the body via a separate cycle. The cleaned blood is then returned to the patient. The process is controlled by the hemodialysis machine that pumps blood, adds anticoagulants, regulates the purification process, and controls the mixing of the dialysis solution and its flow rate through the system.

Peritoneal dialysis (PD)


PD is performed in the patient’s body by flushing sterile dialysate through the abdominal cavity. In this case, the peritoneum acts as a dialysis membrane. PD is usually carried out by patients themselves in their home or workplace several times a day or during the night.



During a kidney transplantation, a healthy kidney from a donor is transferred to the kidney patient.